The Process Through Which Family Engagement Leads to Positive Student Outcomes

Dr. Kathleen Hoover-Dempsey and Dr. Howard Sandler from Vanderbilt University developed a visual to explain their theory about the process through which family engagement leads to positive student outcomes. This visual is based on a review of decades of research on family engagement in education. The visual and summary we are sharing here is meant to provide a basic understanding of their theory. Structured in five levels, the visual addresses three essential questions:

  1. Why do (and don’t) families become involved?
  2. What do families do when they are involved?
  3. How does family involvement make a positive difference in student outcomes?
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